The Future of 21st Century Cubism
Cubism has evolved.
Yeah baby! Yeah!
Definition of Style:
The future of cubism is IN YOUR FACE multi-dimensional idealism that combines the multi-dimensional images of traditional cubism with multi-idealistic metaphors. WTF does that mean? It means each painting should be like Shakespearean metaphors with many multiple meanings. IE. 21st Century Cubism should have "MEANING".
That doesn't mean 20th century cubism didn't have meaning (Marcel Duchamp's works in particular had lots of metaphorical meaning). It just means that in this day and age, meaning needs to be more overt. In a Bugs Bunny "hit Elmer Fudd with a mallet" kind-of way!
That's right, hit the viewer with a mallet! Preferable a foam one.
So yes, 21st century cubism incorporates the past, but also blends in the ideas of metaphors and takes Marcel Duchamp to "the next level".
Neo-Cubism, 21st Century Cubism, call it what you want. Metaphorical Cubism. It doesn't matter.
The History of 20th Century Cubism
Definition of Style:
Cubism was a highly influential visual arts style of the 20th century that was created principally by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris between 1907 and 1914. The Cubist style emphasized the flat, two-dimensional surface of the picture plane, rejecting the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro and refuting time-honoured theories of art as the imitation of nature. Cubist painters were not bound to copying form, texture, colour, and space; instead, they presented a new reality in paintings that depicted radically fragmented objects, whose several sides were seen simultaneously.
Typical cubist paintings frequently show letters, musical instruments, bottles, pitchers, glasses, newspapers, still lifes, and the human face and figure.
While Picasso and Braque are credited with creating the new visual language, it was adopted and further developed by numerous painters, such as Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Roger de la Fresnaye, Marcel Duchamp, Albert Gleizes, and Jean Metzinger. Though primarily a style associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a profound influence on 20th-century sculpture and architecture. Chief among the sculptors who worked in this style are Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz. The adoption of the Cubist aesthetic by the architect Le Corbusier is reflected in the shapes of the houses he designed during the 1920s.
Most importantly of these follow up artists is Juan Gris who is generally regarded as the third major artist of the period.
Georges Braque was the only artist ever to collaborate with Picasso as an equal. He admitted that they were "like climbers roped together, each pulling the other up". From 1907 they worked so closely together, exploring the planes and facets of the same subject matter, that some of their work appears almost identical. Although they developed their own natural autonomy as artists, they carried Cubism to another level that was brighter and more legible.
By 1929 however their innate differences were quite clear, for the two had long since parted ways. They had parted in 1914, for at the outbreak of WWI Braque entered the army as an infantry sergeant and served with distinction, being decorated twice in 1914 for bravery. In 1915 he suffered a serious head wound, which was followed by a trepanation, several months in the hospital, and a long period of convalescence at home at Sorgues. During this period he added to the sayings he had been in the habit of scribbling on the margins of drawings, and in 1917 he published a collection of these sayings called "Thoughts and Reflections on Painting."
New means, new subjects. . . . The aim is not to
reconstitute an anecdotal fact, but to constitute a
pictorial fact. . . . To work from nature is to
improvise. . . . The senses deform, the mind forms.
. . . I love the rule that corrects emotion.
Released from further military service, the artist rejoined the Cubist movement, which by then was in its synthetic phase. In 1917-18 he painted, partly under the influence of his friend Juan Gris, the geometric, strongly coloured, nearly abstract "Woman Musician" and some still lifes in a similar manner. Rapidly he moved away from geometry toward forms softened by looser drawing and freer brushwork. An example of the change is the 1919 "Still Life with Playing Cards." From this point onward his style ceased to evolve in the methodical way it had during the successive phases of Cubism; it became a series of personal variations on the stylistic heritage of the eventful years before WWI.
By now Braque was a prosperous, established modern master, much in the favour of the well-to-do members of postwar French society. Working again much of the time in Paris, he transferred his studio from Montmartre to Montparnasse in 1922 and three years later moved into a new Left Bank house designed for him by a modern-minded architect, Auguste Perret. In 1923 and again in 1925 he had commissions from Sergey Diaghilev, the great ballet impresario, for the design of stage sets. In 1930 he acquired a country residence at Varengeville, a hamlet near Dieppe.
His painting during these years is most easily classified, because of its stylistic variety, on the basis of subject matter. From 1922 to about 1926 he did a series of canephores, pagan-looking women carrying fruit. Overlapping with this group in time is the series of cheminées, fireplace mantelpieces laden with fruit and perhaps a guitar. By 1928 he was doing a series of gueridons, pedestal tables holding the material previously assigned to mantelpieces.
In 1931 he undertook a new medium of expression: incised, white drawings, reminiscent of ancient Greek pottery designs, executed on plaster plaques painted black. Later in the 1930s he began a series of figure paintings; first-rate examples are "Le Duo" and "The Painter and His Model," and in 1937 he won the Carnegie Prize. During World War II he produced a collection of small, generally flat, very decorative pieces of sculpture, in a style recalling again ancient Greece and centring on vaguely mythological themes. After the war he resumed his practice of doing a number of paintings on a single subject: first came a series of billiard tables, then one of studio interiors, and then one of birds--large, lumbering creatures that seem charged with some forgotten archaic symbolic meaning. During the last years of his life Braque was honoured with important exhibitions throughout the world, and in December 1961 he became the first living artist to have his works exhibited in the Louvre. He died on August 31st 1963.
Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, (1881-1973), Spanish painter and sculptor, considered the greatest artist of the 20th century. He was unique as an inventor of forms, as an innovator of styles and techniques, as a master of various media, and as one of the most prolific artists in history. He created more than 20,000 works.
He was born in Málaga on October 25, 1881. Picasso was the son of José Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher, and María Picasso y Lopez. Until 1898 he always used his father's name, Ruiz, and his mother's maiden name, Picasso, to sign his pictures. After about 1901 he dropped “Ruiz” and used his mother's maiden name to sign his pictures.
Picasso is known for his "Blue Period", "Rose Period", and finally something dubbed "Protocubism".
In 1912, pasting paper and a piece of oilcloth to the canvas and combining these with painted areas, Picasso created his first collage, "Still Life with Chair Caning". This technique marked a transition to synthetic cubism. This second phase of cubism is more decorative, and color plays a major role, although shapes remain fragmented and flat.
Picasso continued to practice synthetic cubism throughout his career, but he continued to use different styles as well. Two works of 1915 demonstrate his simultaneous work in different styles: "Harlequin" is a synthetic cubist painting, whereas a drawing of his dealer, Vollard, is executed in his Ingresque style, so called because it emulated the style of the 19th-century French neoclassical artist Jean August Dominique Ingres.
Picasso created cubist sculptures as well as paintings. The bronze bust "Fernande Olivier" (also called Head of a Woman) shows his consummate skill in handling three-dimensional form. He also made constructions—such as "Mandolin and Clarinet—from odds and ends.
Picasso also got into Realist and Surrealist styles. He worked as a designer with Sergey Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. He met and married the dancer Olga Koklova, of whom he did many portraits of. This marriage did not go well and by the 1930s his cubist paintings expressed an underlying eroticism, reflecting his newest love, Marie Thérèse Walter. He painted "Guernica" in1937 after the massacre in the Basque town.
Picasso's palette grew somber with the onset of World War II and death was the subject of numerous works. He formed a new relationship during the 1940s with the painter Françoise Gilot who bore him two children, Claude and Paloma; they appear in many works that recapture his earlier styles. The last of Picasso's companions is Jacqueline Roque, whom he met in 1953 and married in 1961. He then spent much of his time in southern France.
He started to copy great masters of the past such as Eugene Delacroix, and Edouard Manet. He made hundreds of lithographs and also got into ceramics and produced some 2000 pieces. Picasso made important sculptures during this time: "Man with Sheep" and "She-Goat". In 1964 Picasso completed a welded steel maquette (model) for the 18.3-m (60-ft) sculpture Head of a Woman for Chicago's Civic Center. In 1968, during a seven-month period, he created an amazing series of 347 engravings, restating earlier themes: the circus, the bullfight, the theater, and lovemaking.
Throughout Picasso's lifetime, his work was exhibited on countless occasions. Most unusual, was the 1971 exhibition at the Louvre, in Paris, honoring him on his 90th birthday. Other than Braque, no other living artist had been exhibited there. Picasso died in his villa Notre-Dame-de-Vie near Mougins on April 8, 1973.
(1881-1955) Léger was a French painter, who influenced cubism, constructivism, and the modern commercial poster and other types of applied art. Born in Argentan, France, he served a two-year architecture apprenticeship in Caen, France, and later studied unofficially under two professors at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France.
Beginning in 1910 he was a prominent exhibitor and member of the Salon des Indépendants. Most of his early pictures were cubist in character, as in "Nudes in the Forest". Along with his compatriot Georges Braque and the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, Léger played an important role in the development and spread of cubism.
Léger's subsequent work was influenced by his experiences in World War I. He began to use many symbols from the industrial world and attempted to depict his objects and people in machinelike forms. "The City" is one of his most notable paintings. Léger's work had an important influence on the movements of neoplasticism in the Netherlands and constructivism in the Soviet Union. He made highly successful efforts as a glass painter, as a sculptor, and in creating mosaics, ceramics, and tapestries. The modern commercial poster and other types of applied art were also influenced by his original designs.
In his late paintings, Léger separated color from his figures, which, while they retained their robotlike shapes, were painted in black lines. The color was then boldly laid over areas of the canvas to form a separate composition that tied the entire painting together. "The Great Parade" one of his last paintings, is a monumental example of this original style.
(1885-1941) Delaunay was a French painter, who was a pioneer of abstract art in the early 20th century. In 1912 he moved away from cubism—with its geometric forms and monochromatic colors—to a new style, called Orphism, which concentrated on circular forms and bright colors. His Windows series (1912) was one of the first examples of totally abstract art, an important landmark in modern art. His love of rhythm and movement led to several series of paintings based on sporting events, such as Sprinters and culminated in dazzling abstract works focusing purely on rhythm, such as the later Rhythms and Eternal Rhythms series.
(1887-1968) Duchamp was a French Dada artist, whose small but controversial output exerted a strong influence on the development of 20th-century avant-garde art. Born on July 28, 1887, in Blainville, brother of the artist Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half brother of the painter Jacques Villon, Duchamp began to paint in 1908. After producing several canvases in the current mode of Fauvism, he turned toward experimentation and the avant-garde, producing his most famous work, "Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2" in 1912; portraying continuous movement through a chain of overlapping cubistic figures, the painting caused a fury at New York City's famous Armory Show in 1913. He painted very little after 1915, although he continued until 1923 to work on his masterpiece, "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors". He even did an abstract work known as "The Large Glass", composed in oil and wire on glass, that was enthusiastically received by the surrealists.
In sculpture, Duchamp pioneered two of the main innovations of the 20th century—kinetic art and ready-made art. His “ready-mades” consisted simply of everyday objects, such as a urinal and a bottle rack. His Bicycle Wheel (1913, original lost; 3rd version, 1951, Museum of Modern Art, New York City), an early example of kinetic art, was mounted on a kitchen stool.
After his short creative period, Duchamp was content to let others develop the themes he had originated; his pervasive influence was crucial to the development of surrealism, Dada, and pop art. Duchamp became an American citizen in 1955. He died in Paris on October 1, 1968.
(1891-1973) Lipchtiz was a French sculptor. Originally named Chaim Jacob Lipchitz, he was born in the village of Druskininkai, Russia (now in Lithuania). In 1909, while studying at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he joined a group of artists, including the Spaniards Juan Gris and Pablo Picasso, who were experimenting with cubism, and soon was recognized as one of the foremost cubist sculptors. An important example of his cubist work is "Reclining Nude with Guitar". His later work departed from cubism, displaying more realism and a sensuous textural surface. His attempts to reproduce the mysterious, magical qualities of primitive sculpture also became increasingly evident in his work. One of Lipchitz's recurrent themes, especially after his arrival in the U.S. in 1941, was the triumph of light over darkness, as expressed symbolically in "Prometheus Strangling the Vulture". His monumental "Peace on Earth" is a good example of the grandeur and serenity of his late work.
Alexander Porfiryevich Archipenko:
(1887-1964) Archipenko was a Russian-American sculptor, born in Kyyiv. He studied at the Kyyiv Art School and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He made Paris the center of his activities from 1908 to 1914; lived in Berlin from 1921 to 1923; and after 1923 made his home in the United States, where he taught and lectured at various colleges and universities. From 1939 to 1955 he conducted a private school of fine arts in New York City. Archipenko was an experimenter and innovator in sculpture, deriving abstract forms from the human figure in some of the earliest cubist sculptures known, such as "Medrano". His style relied on the emphasis given to concavities and negative spaces, or voids.
The Cubist style dominated several decades of the 20th century due to the many works by Braque, Picasso and Gris, and many other artists involved in the movement, making it a very large contribution to the development of arts in the 20th century.